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Baking: Research & Statistics

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  Adjusting Dough Rheology
Briefly reviews the processing and ingredient knowledge available today to achieve the optimum dough rheology required for any baked product. Online article in Food Product Design.
  Agricultural Fact Book
A handy reference tool that offers information about US Agriculture and describes all USDA programs. It also provides useful information about food safety, nutrition, rural issues, research, education, and natural resources.
  ANSI/BISSC/Z50.2-2003 Sanitation Standard for the Design of Bakery Equipment
Standard for the design, construction, & cleaning of specified bakery equpment. Used as a guide by manufacturers, users, and federal, state, county, district and municipal health authorities & other food regulatory agencies. HTML or PDF format.
  Australian Baking Industry - A Profile
This report was commissioned to develop a cross-sector profile of the Australian baking industry, post milling, across 3 main categories: bread products, cakes and pastries, and biscuits. The report includes a compilation of publicly available industry statistics and industry commentary.
  Bakers Dictionary
Baking Business has compiled a list of more than 1,000 baking terms and their definitions
  Bakers Production Manual
An encyclopedia of baking that offers reference, formulations and troubleshooting for common baking ingredients.
  CAOBISCO Dictionary
An internal translation tool of the CAOBISCO Secretariat. It contains terms from texts and positions established or transiting through the Secretariat. The dictionary currently contains 1600 terms and will be updated regularly.
  Cereals and Bakery Products
This page describes the cereal and bakery products components of the R&D programme of the Prepared Foods Department at Ashtown Food Research Centre, a division of Teagasc (Ireland) and the three main dimensions: research, milling/test baking, and support for industry. Cereal research facilities at AFRC include a mill room, test bakery, dough rheology lab and a sensory unit. There are links from the page to current research results.
  Dairy Ingredients for the Baking Industry
Shortenings (baking fats), microencapsulated using dairy ingredients and milk protein hydrolysates, were produced for testing in a variety of baked products. The powders were evaluated for their functionality as powdered baking fats, as potential replacers of synthetic emulsifiers, as ingredients capable of improving baking performance or as potential health-enhancing ingredients. These Irish studies provide the technology for the dairy industry to enter the specialised food ingredients sector with a siftable, non-greasy, free-flowing powdered fat for the baking industry. Microencapsulated high fat powders provide a convenient alternative to fats or shortenings which are usually used in cereal-based baked products. Powdered fats, in common with other baking ingredients, are flowable compared to block fats and they also increase the overall protein content of baked goods, which provides certain functional benefits. The main objective of this project was to evaluate the performance of microencapsulated high fat powders in a range of baked products. Milk protein hydrolysates have well-established nutritional properties, but their functional effects in baked goods have not been quantified. Hence, the functional and physicochemical characteristics of some casein hydrolysates generated by a range of food-grade enzymes were evaluated to determine their suitability for use in baked products. Pilot-scale production of hydrolysates were undertaken and the spray dried products were evaluated in baked products. A copy is available for download as a PDF file from this page.
  Design Handbook For Easily Cleanable Equipment, Third Edition 2004
A quick and ready reference for the design engineer and field installer on the design and installation of bakery equipment to comply with sanitation standards set forth by ANSI/BISSC/Z50.2-2003.
  Development of Organic Breads and Confectionery
An Irish end-of-project report arising from the gaps in the knowledge base on the use of organic flours as ingredients, this study evaluated the chemical, rheological and baking characteristics of white, wholemeal and confectionery organic flours and assessed the baking potential of organic bakery ingredients, in particular improvers, fats and additives. Ingredients and baked goods were compared to non-organic controls. Also avaiable as a Acrobat PDF download (354 KB).
  Dynamic Rheological and Thermal Properties of Soft Wheat Flour Dough Containing Structured Lipid
The effect of substituting canola oil/caprylic acid structured lipid for shortening (at 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% levels) on the viscoelastic and thermal properties of soft wheat flour dough (28.4% total lipid, 43% moisture) was determined using dynamic rheological and differential scanning calorimetry tests. Ambient frequency scans produced higher G" (loss modulus) and G' (storage modulus) values at increasing frequencies. Temperature scans revealed rapid G" and G' increases for dough heated to above 56 °C, apparently because of starch gelatinization. Three differential scanning calorimetry endothermic peaks were observed at 54 °C, 69 °C, and 93 °C, which were attributed to shortening transition and gelatinization of starch granules. In Journal of Food Science, Volume 69, Issue 7, Page 297-302, September 2004.
  Effect of Chemical Modification, pH Change, and Freezing on the Rheological, Solubility, and Electrophoretic Pattern of Wheat Flour Proteins
In this study the effect of chemical modification and freezing of dough on the characteristics of wheat proteins and the rheological properties of dough was investigated. A slight increase in the protein solubility and disappearance of protein bands in the range of 55 to 70 KDa was observed when samples were frozen for 6 to 8 weeks. Ascorbic acid decreased and cysteine and bisulfite increased solubility of wheat proteins. Dough stability increased as pH was raised above 6.5. Two protein bands in the range of 55 to 60 KDa appeared in ascorbic acid treated doughs and the intensity of bands of less than 6.5 KDa increased in cysteine or bisulfite treated doughs. Several protein bands in the range of 30, 50, and 90 KDa appeared when the pH was raised to 7.0 and above. The results of this study suggest that high- molecular-weight proteins of wheat flour have a major influence on the properties of dough and that these proteins are affected by chemical treatment, pH change, and freezing. In Journal of Food Science, Volume 67, Issue 7, Page 2502-2506, September 2002
  Effect of Flour Quality, Ascorbic Acid, and DATEM on Dough Rheological Parameters and Hearth Loaves Characteristics
The effects of protein quality, protein content, ascorbic acid, diacetyl tartaric acid ester of monoglyc-erides (DATEM), and their interactions on dough rheology and hearth bread properties were studied by size-exclusion fast protein liquid chromatography, Kieffer Dough & Gluten Extensibility Rig, and small-scale baking of hearth loaves. The effect of protein content was either positive or negative on hearth loaf characteristics, form ratio, and area, depending on the amount of the largest glutenin polymers in the flour. Ascorbic acid brought out the potential in the wheat flour known as protein quality. Ascorbic acid and DATEM strengthened the doughs and improved hearth bread characteristics. In Journal of Food Science, Volume 68, Issue 7, Page 2201-2210, September 2003
  Effects of Beta-(1-3),(1-4)-D-Glucans from Hull-Less Barley on the Properties of Wheat Starch, Flour and Bread
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of beta-glucans extracted from a hull-less barley on wheat starch and flour functionality.
  Fiber-enriched wheat flour precooked using extrusion processing: rheological, nutritional and sensory properties
Foods with high fiber can reduce calorie uptake and provide health benefits related to chronic ailments like obesity, diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular disease. However, inclusion of fiber diminishes the final product quality and consumer acceptability of cereal products. The overall objective of this project/thesis was to produce fiber-enriched, pre-cooked wheat flours using extrusion processing in order to enhance their nutritional value, while maintaining functional and sensory properties in baked products such as cookies and tortillas. To summarize, pre-cooking of the flours using extrusion did not improve the sensory properties of cookies and tortillas, although the products were still found acceptable by consumers and also contained higher soluble fiber.
  Food Labeling and Nutrition
These FDA Food Labeling web pages address the labeling requirements for foods under the Federal Food Drug and Cosmetic Act and its amendments. Food labeling is required for most prepared foods, such as breads, cereals, canned and frozen foods, snacks, desserts, drinks, etc.
  Food Labeling Guide : Guidance for Industry
This guidance represents the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) current thinking on this topic. It does not create or confer any rights for or on any person and does not operate to bind FDA or the public.
Website for CRC Press, Woodhead Publishing, and AOCS Press that features full text access to over 171 titles. Subscription required to access the full text.
  Functional Ingredients as Fat Replacers in Cakes and Pastries
For specific health concerns, consumers want fat taken out of food without the flavour and texture being adversely affected. Novel ingredients were investigated for use in the formulation of reduced fat bakery products at the National Food Centre, Ireland. Consumer Focus Groups suggested that the reduced fat pastry containing Gelite had potential for further development and the reduced fat madeira cakes had commercial potential. This page contains the summary. A copy of the entire report is available for download as a PDF file from this page.
  Gluten-Free Formulation
Those with gluten intolerance and/or celiac disease have faced many challenges in their quest to follow a gluten-free lifestyle. This article discusses lack of a world "gluten-free" standard, difficulty creating baked products with appealing taste and/or texture, use of glutens in salad dressings for example, use of gums, etc.
  Historical Source Materials on American and World Baking
A basic bibliography from the American Institute of Baking
  Improving the Quality of Gluten-Free Products
The summary to an Irish end-of-project report investigating the replacement of gluten in products for those suffering from coeliac disease or other allergic reactions/intolerances to gluten. The objective was to investigate a range of starch sources (rice, potato), protein and fibre sources (dairy proteins, fish protein, inulin) and hydrocolloids (xanthan gum, konjac gum, hydroxypropylmethylcellulose [HPMC]) which may be used to replace gluten. Two types of bread were developed at The National Food Centre: ( i) wheat starch-based, and ( ii) free from wheat starch. These were evaluated by members of the Coeliac Society of Ireland. The project partners in University College Cork developed gluten-free biscuits and pizza bases and a précis of their results is also included in this report. A link to the full report in PDF format (478 KB) is available on the page.
  Mechanism of gas cell stability in bread making
Thesis examining the possibility of a dual mechanism for stabilization of inflating gas bubbles which affect the expansion of dough and breadmaking performance. Two flours were used in this study, one from the wheat variety Jagger (Jagger) and the other from a composite of soft wheat varieties (soft). The primary stabilizing mechanism is due to the gluten-starch matrix surrounding the bubble. The secondary mechanism operates when gas bubbles come into close contact during later proofing and early baking. When discontinuities occur in the gluten-starch matrix surrounding gas bubbles, thin liquid lamellae stabilized by adsorbed surface active compounds, provide a secondary stabilization.
  Milling Process
Presents a greatly abbreviated description of the process of producing white flour by roller mills in North America. The author hopes that this description will better the understanding bakers have of the entire process of bread-making and thus lead to better bakers.
A member of the Stern-Wywiol Gruppe, Muehlenchemie is an owner-managed company in Germany. The focus is on intelligent solutions for flour standardization and flour improvement including Enzyme Systems, bromate substitutes, ascorbic acid, oxidizing agents, vitamins and minerals, and also baking premixes for ready-mixed and composite flours. The site is in German but the viewer may select from 13 other languages. The site also contains documents of important research findings by well-known scientists from Canada, the USA, Singapore, Australia, the Netherlands and Germany for your use. The selection of contributions is updated regularly. Select Know-how, then select Expert knowledge to get to the page listing these documents.
  New and Improved Wheat Uses Audit: Final Report
The usage of corn and soybeans has expanded beyond traditional consumption bases. So the National Association of Wheat Growers (NAWG) commissioned Sparks Companies, Inc. to conduct a comprehensive audit of new and improved uses for wheat. Utilizing a combination of interviews/surveys and a literature review, 3 categories were identified and deemed to have sufficient probability of success. The 3 categories are: New or improved uses of wheat; new or improved wheat characteristics; and new or improved uses of wheat by-products. The report investigated a number of specific new or improved uses/characteristics in depth.
  Producing Food Ingredients by Extrusion Cooking
The objective of the project was to improve the quality and acceptability of convenience foods produced by extrusion cooking. A range of acceptable, quality ingredients and food products was produced by extrusion cooking. These products had acceptable textural properties and were received favourably in consumer pre-test studies. The products included in the test were sausages, frankfurters, snack products and meat extenders. However, a trade and consumer market analysis suggests that it would be difficult to develop a market for extruded meat products. A copy of the entire report is available for download as a PDF file from this page.
  Puffing of Rice Cakes as Influenced by Tempering and Heating Conditions
Puffed rice cakes were produced from long grain brown rice by a pressure-drop puffing method. Effects of raw rice tempering conditions (time and moisture level) and heating conditions (temperature and time) immediately before puffing on rice cake volume were investigated. In general, a lower moisture level (14% vs 16–20%) in raw rice and longer tempering time (5 hr vs 1–3 hr) resulted in higher specific volumes in rice cakes. Higher heating temperature (230°C vs 200–220°C) and 8 sec heating produced rice cakes with higher specific volumes. Darker cakes were obtained with the high temperature and long time combinations. In Journal of Food Science, Volume 54, Issue 5, Page 1310-1312, September 1989
  Relation Between Oxygen-17 NMR and Rheological Characteristics of Wheat Flour Suspensions
Water binding has a significant influence on the rheological properties of wheat flour suspensions. Wheat flour-water suspensions at concentrations from 60 - 95% wet basis were subjected to rheological and NMR analyses in order to ascertain the relation between the two methods. The rheological data obtained by the Haake RV-3 Rotoviscometer followed the Power Law, thus comparisons were based on consistency coefficient (a) and flow behavior (b) values. The NMR spectrometer measured oxygen-17 relaxation rates (34 MHz in water and in deuterium oxide) as an indication of water mobility. The data showed a general inverse relationship between consistency coefficient and water mobility. However, the data indicated three distinct regions, each showing a linear relation with water mobility decreasing as apparent viscosity increased. In Journal of Food Science, Volume 50, Issue 4, Page 1148-1151, July 1985
  Relationship Between Physical Properties of Dough and Expansion Ability During Bread-Making
Investigated whether the physical properties (rheological properties) of various bread doughs, obtained from a linear Kelvin four-element model of visco-elasticity, could be used to express the expansion ability of the dough during bread-making. The physical properties τ0 and τ1 (relaxation and retardation time, respectively) were determined from the creep. The stress relaxation curves derived from the τ0 values of various doughs, such as Victoria INTA (extra strong flour), Camellia (strong flour), and Hokushin (semi-strong flour), approximated the experimental results well. By analyzing the relationship between each coefficient in this model and the expansion ability of bread dough (specific loaf volume and gas retention), it was proven that τ0 and τ1 were positively and negatively correlated, respectively, to the expansion of bread dough to a statistically significant extent. From these results, it was suggested that dough with more elastic properties shows greater expansion. It is known experientially that adequate dough elasticity is necessary for good expansion, and the results of this study support the previous data. In Food Science and Technology Research, Vol. 12 (2006) , No. 2, 91-95
  Relaxation behavior and the application of integral constitutive equations to wheat dough
The small amplitude rheological properties of doughs of different compositions were measured using a dynamic rheometer. In the first study, the effect of water, flour, and added gluten on the dynamic properties was investigated. Frequency sweep was carried out in the range of 0. 1 to 100 s-1 at an applied strain of 0. 1%. Storage (G') and loss (G") moduli for each composition were recorded. The storage modulus versus frequency plots were a series of parallel curves indicating that the moisture-to-flour ratio was the most important parameter. The loss modulus versus frequency plot showed a falling-off after a frequency of 40 s-1. A plot of tan δ versus frequency indicated a more elastic dough at shorter time. In Journal of Texture Studies, Volume 27, Issue 5, Page 517-544, November 1996
  ReoMixer™ Wheat Dough Rheology and Baking Quality by Multivariate Analysis
Demonstrates that the baking quality expressed as bread volume of 21 different wheat varieties can be predicted to 91% explained variance from their respective mixing curve. A 35 g mixograph was instrumented and interfaced to a computer for data acquisition.The obtained mixograms were evaluated with a data processing program extracting twelve parameters from each mixogram. Finally the results were correlated to bread volume with PLS analysis.
  Textural Characteristics of Wholewheat Pasta and Pasta Containing Non-Starch Polysaccharides
Pasta enriched with nonstarch polysaccharides, and wholewheat pasta were assessed for cooking quality. Xanthan gum improved pasta firmness when added at 1 and 2%, without affecting moisture uptake or degree of swelling when cooked for a constant time. Dynamic rheological testing indicated development of a network structure with addition of gums which contributed to overall pasta tirmness. Food grade pea fiber, at 5 and 10%, caused moderate reduction in firmness. Wholewheat pasta was similar in firmness to pasta with 10% pea fiber, as measured by Instron. Dynamic rheometry measurements indicated a weak network in wholewheat pasta. Small strain dynamic tests were more sensitive to subtle changes in network structure than were large deformation compression tests. In Journal of Food Science, Volume 60, Issue 6, Page 1321-1324, November 1995
  Thermomechanical Changes during Reheating Pizza Shells as Related to Heating Method
Two transitions were studied in pizzas, T1 (4 ± 40°C at 33.5% m.c.) which decreased amplitude upon vacuum drying and T2 (60 ± 40°C) which was moisture independent. Moisture loss in the microwave (more rapid) heated samples below 'freezable' water range resulted in T1 and T2 gradually changing in their proportion. T2 increasingly became predominant eventually merging with T1. Resulting differences in thermo-mechanical and rheological properties were related to temperature-moisture profiles, shrinkage, the observed loss of 'freezable' water and networking. T2 (60 ± 40°C) was found responsible for the leathery texture in microwaved pizza while T1 (0 ± 30°C) was the dominating transition in the soft conventional product. Retrogradation of starch was not related. In Journal of Food Science, Volume 61, Issue 5, Page 990-994, September 1996
  Triticale Grain for Other Uses
Provides information on the use of triticale in baking, cereal-based foods, animal feeds and biofuels.
  Understanding Demand Shifts for Grain-Based Foods
The agenda (with links to the speakers' Power Point presentations)from a workshop sponsored by Farm Foundation and USDA's Economic Research Service in 2004. The workshop featured about 50 leaders from food industry, government and academia who examined how current consumer trends and nutrition issues are affecting demand for grain-based food products and identified data tools needed to better analyze consumption patterns.
  Using Right Kind of Flour Important to Holiday Baking
The article explains the differences between the types of flour called for in recipes.
  Water Content, Water Soluble Fraction, and Mixing Affect Fundamental Rheological Properties of Wheat Flour Doughs
Fundamental rheological behavior of wheat flour doughs were compared with empirical results from a farinograph. Water contents of 42-47% and mixing times of 8, 16, and 24 min were examined. The storage modulus, G', decreased when water content was increased from 42 to 45%. Dough produced from water extracted flours had high G' and low δ. Increasing water content or mixing time decreased G'. There was a linear relationship (slope = 0.30) between G' and the farinogram peak height for the reconstituted (water-soluble fraction added back), flour-water, and freeze-dried flour-water doughs. The extracted flour doughs also showed a linear relationship between G' and farinogram peak height with slope = 1.07. In Journal of Food Science, Volume 57, Issue 5, Page 1198-1209, September 1992
  Water vapour sorption behaviour of original and defatted wheat gluten
The water vapour sorption isotherms of original and defatted gluten samples, prepared from two wheat cultivars (Spring and Taurus) with good and poor baking performance, respectively, were investigated at 25 and 40°C. The GAB isotherm equation described the isotherms well up to a relative humidity of at least 84% at 25°C and up to 75% at 40°C. The GAB constants of Spring gluten indicated an increased number of adsorption sites and a decreased average interaction energy per binding site at increased defatting (petroleum ether, chloroform). This tendency was also observed for Taurus, however, here no significant differences were found between the solvents. When comparing both cultivars the isotherm analysis indicated less available active sites for water adsorption with a stronger interaction energy per site for Taurus gluten. This stronger interaction is in accord with the higher isosteric heat of adsorption (Clausius-Clapeyron analysis) found at low relative humidities. These findings are related to bread baking performance. In International Journal of Food Science and Technology, Volume 31, Issue 6, Page 519-526, December 1996


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